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Old 06-17-2004, 04:45 PM
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Default Post-fire Seeding

From: Cindy cindyburrascano@cox.net
Date: 11/06/03
Time: 02:32 PM


The County of San Diego will be handing out seed to homeowners or former homeowners for use on their private property. Is Zorro fescue (Vulpia myuros) better than Rye (Lolium)? Since they both produce a flashy fuel I don't know why you would want to use either but is there a species that would be better to use? I recommended sandbags and straw wattle but that will not politically be sufficient. Would spreading straw over the soil surface be less damaging? Possibly heavy rains are predicted this weekend so if they do hand out seed, it will be the downstream impacts of whatever they put out that would be of most concern. Cindy
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Old 06-17-2004, 04:45 PM
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From: Cindy cindyburrascano@cox.net
Date: 11/11/03
Time: 03:08 PM


No one opined on my topic but here are things that people forwarded to me that I found helpful. In 1995 Todd Keeler-Wolf wrote an article on post-fire seeding and a PDF version of it can be found at DFG's VegCAMP website http://www.dfg.ca.gov/whdab/html/vegcamp.html Info on a 2000 FS Report follows with a link to the 89 page downloadable report. RMRS-GTR-63: Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments -------------------------------------------------- Robichaud, Peter R.; Beyers, Jan L.; Neary, Daniel G. 2000. Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-63. Fort Collins: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 85 p. Spending on postfire emergency watershed rehabilitation has increased during the past decade. A west-wide evaluation of USDA Forest Service burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatment effectiveness was undertaken as a joint project by USDA Forest Service Research and National Forest System staffs. This evaluation covers 470 fires and 321 BAER projects, from 1973 through 1998 in USDA Forest Service Regions 1 through 6. A literature review, interviews with key Regional and Forest BAER specialists, analysis of burned area reports, and review of Forest and District monitoring reports were used in the evaluation. The study found that spending on rehabilitation has increased to over $48 million during the past decade because the perceived threat of debris flows and floods has increased where fires are closer to the wildland-urban interface. Existing literature on treatment effectiveness is limited, thus making treatment comparisons difficult. The amount of protection provided by any treatment is small. Of the available treatments, contour-felled logs show promise as an effective hillslope treatment because they provide some immediate watershed protection, especially during the first postfire year. Seeding has a low probability of reducing the first season erosion because most of the benefits of the seeded grass occurs after the initial damaging runoff events. To reduce road failures, treatments such as properly spaced rolling dips, water bars, and culvert reliefs can move water past the road prism. Channel treatments such as straw bale check dams should be used sparingly because onsite erosion control is more effective than offsite sediment storage in channels in reducing sedimentation from burned watersheds. From this review, we recommend increased treatment effectiveness monitoring at the hillslope and sub-catchment scale, streamlined postfire data collection needs, increased training on evaluation postfire watershed conditions, and development of an easily accessible knowledge base of BAER techniques. Keywords: burn severity, erosion control, BAER, burned area emergency rehabilitation, mitigation, seeding, monitoring Download RMRS-GTR-63 http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr63.pdf (Approx. 730 KB) The following are references people provided: Some Fire and Post-fire Reseeding References Compiled Nov 2003 Ainsworth, Jack and Troy Alan Dross. 1995. Natural History of Fire and Flood Cycles. In: Post-Fire Hazard Assessment Planning and Mitigation Workshop. University of California, Santa Barbara, August 18, 1995. Amaranthus, Michael P. , Trappe, James M. and David A. Perry. Soil moisture, native revegetation, and Pinus lambertiana seedling survival, growth and mycorrhiza formation following wildfire and grass seeding. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Barro, Susan C. and Susan G. Conard. 1987. Use of Ryegrass Seeding as an Emergency Revegetation Measure in Chaparral Ecosystems. General Tech. Rep. PSW-102. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Berkeley, CA. 12p. Beyers, J.L., Conard, S.G., and C.D. Wakeman. 1994. Impacts of an introduced grass seeded for erosion control, on postfire community composition and species diversity in Southern California chaparral. Pp 594-601. In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference of Fire and Forest Meteorology. Society of American Foresters, Bathesda, Maryland. Borcher, M. 1995. Fire intensity and vegetation recovery in chaparral: a review. Pp. 91-100. In: Brushfires in California Wildlands: Ecology and Resource Management. J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield , Washington. Borchert, M., Davis, F.W., Michaelsen, J.C., and L.D. Oyler. 1989. Interactions of factors affecting recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) in California. Ecology. 70:389-404. Collins, L.M. and C.E. Johnston. 1995. Effectiveness of straw bale dams for erosion control in the Oakland Hills following the fire of 1991. pp. 171-183. In: Wildfires in California Brushlands: Ecology and Resource Management. J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds.) International Association of Wildlands Fire, Fairfield, WA. Conard, S. 1993. The effects of fire and post-fire rehabilitation measures on surface erosion and vegetation development in California chaparral. Work Plan No. 8, 1993-1994 Fiscal Year. Agreement SCA53048 (PSW-86-CL-031). Los Padres National Forest Files. Conard, S.G., Beyer, J.L., and P.M. Wohlgemuth. 1995. Impacts of postfire grass seeding on chaparral systems- what do we know and where do we go from here? pp. 149-161 In: Wildfires in California Brushlands: Ecology and Resource Management. J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds.) International Association of Wildlands Fire, Fairfield, WA. Conard, S.F., Tegelbrugge, J.C., and R. D. Wills. 1991. Preliminary effects of ryegrass seeding on postfire establishment of natural vegetation in two California ecosystems. 11th Conference on Fire and Forest Meterorology. April 16-19. Missoula, Mt. 8pp. Conrad, E.E. 1979. Emergency post-fire seeding using annual grass. CHAPS Newsletter, USDA Forest Service, Chaparral Research and Development Program, p 5-8. Corbett, E.S. and R.P. Crouse. 1968. Rainfall interception by annual grass and chaparral. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research Paper PSW-48. Corbett and Rice. 1966. Soil slippage increased by brush conversion: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research Paper PSW-128. Danielsen, K.C. and W.L. Halvorson. 1990. Valley oak seedling growth associated with selected grass species. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Oak Woodlands and Hardwood Rangeland Management. Gen Tech Report PSW-126, USDA Forest Service. Dremann, C. 1989. Grasses of European origin and their impact upon California bunchgrass (Stipa pulchra). http://www.ecoseeds.com/native.grassland.lit.html Fire Effects Information System. 2003. Online database at http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ Gautier, Clayton R. 1981. The effects of ryegrass on erosion and native vegetation recovery in burned Southern California Watershed (Otay Mountain). A Masters Thesis in Ecology. San Diego State University. Gautier, C.R. 1982. The effects of ryegrass on erosion and natural vegetation recovery after fire. p.599. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. C.E. Conrad and W. Oechel (eds). USDA For. Ser. Gen Tech Rep PSW-58 p.559. Gautier, C.R. and P.H. Zedler. 1982. Does emergency revegetation reduce or increase sediment yields from chaparral watersheds? Chap. Res. Mgt. Newsletter. UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego, CA pp 6-8. Graves, W. 1979. Floods and erosion-annual ryegrass ?myth?. Chap. Res. Mgt. Newsletter, UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego, CA p 1-2. Griffin, J.R. 1982. Pine seedlings, native ground cover, and Lolium multiflorum on the Marble Cone burn, Santa Lucia Range, California. Madrono. 29(3): 177-188. Hammond, R.R. 1977. Marble Cone burn rehabilitation: accomplishment, critique, and recommendations. Monterey Ranger District, Los Padres National Forest, King City, CA. Keeler-Wolf.,Todd. 1995. Post-Fire Emergency Seeding and Conservation in Southern California Shrubs. In: Wildfires in California Brushlands: Ecology and Resource Management. J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds.) International Association of Wildlands Fire, Fairfield, WA. Keeley, J.E. 1976. Resilience of Mediterranean shrub communities to fires. In: Resilience in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems. Ed. B. Dell. DR W Junk Publishers, Boston. 168 pp. Keeley, J.E. 1977. Seed production, seed populations in soil, and seedling production after fire for two congeneric pairs of sprouting and non-sprouting chaparral shrubs. Ecology. 58: 820-829. Keeley, Jon E. 2002. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes. Environmental Management. 29(3): 395-408. Keeley, J.E., Carrington, M., and S. Trnka. 1995. Overview of management issues raised by the 1993 wildfires in Southern California. P. 83-89. In: Brushfires in California Wildlands: Ecology and Resource Management. J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Washington. Keeley, S.C., Keeley, J.E., Hutchinson, S.M., and A.W. Johnson. 1981. Postfire succession of herbaceous flora in Southern California chaparral. Ecology. 62(6): 1608-1621. Krammes, J.S. and L.W. Hill. 1963. First aid for burned watersheds. Research Note PSW-29, Pacific Southwest Range and Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. Libby, W.J. and K.A. Rodriques. 1992. Revegetating the Oakland-Berkeley Hills burn. Fremontia. 20(1):43-49. Liu et. al. 1994 and 1995. Journal of Chemical Ecology Mathews, M.A. 1986. The impacts of ryegrass seeding on plant communities of the central coast: a literature review. Graduate studies report, California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo. Moreno, J.M. and W.C. Oechel. 1991. Fire intensity effects on germination of shrubs and herbs in Southern California chaparral. Ecology. 72(6): 1993-2004. Myers and Ellstrand. 1985. Cal Water Resources Center Report 62. Nadkami, N.M., and D.C. Odion. 1985. Effects of seeding an exotic grass Lolium mutiflorum on native sedling regeneration following fire in a chaparral community. In: Proceedings of the Chaparral Ecosystems Management Conference. California Water Resources Center, Univ. of CA, Davis. Report 62. Naqvi, H.H. 1969. Allelopathic effects of Lolium multiflorum. PhD. Dissertation. University of California, Santa Barbara. O?Leary, J. F. 1995. potential impacts of emergency seeding on cover and diversity patterns of California shrubland communities. p. 141-148. In: : Brushfires in California Wildlands: Ecology and Resource Management. J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Washington. Odion, D.C. and N.M. Nadkarni. 1985. The effects of seeding an exotic grass (Lolium multiflorum) on native seedling regeneration following fire in a chaparral community. P.115-121. In: Proceedings of the Chaparral Ecosystems Research Conference. J.J. De Vries (ed), University of California, Davis. Water Resources Center, Report 62. Parker, V. Thomas. 1988. Maximizing vegetation response on management burns by indentifying fire regimes. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Fire and Watershed Management, October 26-28, 1988, Sacramento. California USFS Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Paper PSW-No. 6. Radtke, Klaus. 1985. First postfire season plant establishment. In: The Chaparral of Southern California, National Foundation for Environmental Safety, National Park Service, 1985. Radtke, Klaus. Living More Safely in the chaparral-urban interface. USFS Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experimental Station. General Technical Report PSW-67. Read, E. and M. Griswold. 1992. Restoration of coastal sage scrub in Southern California-what are we restoring (an open letter)? Society for Ecological Restoration California Chapter Newsletter. Spring 1992. Rice, R.M. 1974. The hydrology of chaparral soils. In: Symposium on Living with the Chaparral, Proceedings. Sierra Club Special Publication, San Francisco, CA. p 27-34. Rice and Foggin. 1971. Effect of high intensity storms on soil slippage in mountainous watersheds in Southern California. Water Resource Research 7(6):1485-1495. Robichaud, P.R., Beyers, J.L., and D.G. Neary. 2000. Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountains Research Station, General Technical Report, RMRS-GTR-63. Roby, Kenneth B. 1988. Watershed response and recovery from the Will Fire: Ten years observation. In: Proceedings of the Symposium of Fire and Watershed Management, October 26-28, 1988. Sacramento, CA USFS Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station General Technical Paper PSW-109 Schultz, A.M., Launchbaugh, J.L., and H.H. Biswell. 1955. Relationship between grass density and brush seedling survival. Ecology. 36(2): 226-238. Scott, K.M. and R.P. Williams. 1978. Erosion and sediment yields in the Transverse Ranges, Southern California. U.S. Geological Service Prof. Paper 1030, 37 pp. Taskey, R.D., Curtis, C.L., and J. Stone. 1988. Wildfire, Ryegrass seeding, and watershed rehabilitation. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Fire and Watershed Management. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-109. Wakimoto, R.E. 1979. Major points against the use of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) for emergency revegetation of burned chaparral watersheds. CHAPS Newsletter, Chaparral Research and Development Program. Pacific Southwest Forest Fire Lab, Riverside, CA. Wakimoto, R.H. 1979. Comments on seeding burned chaparral with annual ryegrass. CHAP Newsletter, Forest Fire Lab., Riverside, CA p3-4. Wakimoto, Ronald. 1985. Wildfire Management. In: Living in the chaparral of Southern California. National Foundation for Environmental Safety, National Park Service. Welling, Singer, and Dunn. 1984. Effects of fire on shrubland soils. In: Shrublands in California: Literature Review and Research Needed for Management: California Water Resources Center Contribution 191. Wells, W.G. 1985. The influence of fire on erosion rates in California chaparral. In: Proceedings of the Chaparral Ecosystems Management Conference. California Water Resources Center, University of California, Davis. Report 62. Zedler, P.H., Gautier, C.R., and G.S. McMaster. 1983. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology. 64:809-818.
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