California Native Plant Society

Rare Plant Program

Bibliography for the CNPS Inventory, 6th Edition

Peggy L. Fiedler and James P. Smith, Jr.

The list of references that follows is meant to provide you with literature citations for some of the standard California floras, for statewide treatments of rare and endangered plants in California and selected western states, for theoretical and legal aspects of rarity and endangerment, for conservation biology and the management of rare plant populations, and for descriptions of plant communities in California.

Floras 

Abrams, L.R. 1923-1960. An Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States, Washington, Oregon and California. Vol. 4 by R. Ferris. Stanford University Press. Stanford, CA. 4 vols.

Hickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

Jepson, W.L. 1925. Manual of the Flowering Plants of California. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA. 1238 pp.

Jepson, W.L. 1907-1979. A Flora of California. Vol. 4, Part 2 by L.T. Dempster. Jepson Herbarium and Library, University of California at Berkeley. Berkeley, CA. Incomplete, in 4 vols.

Munz, P.A. 1959. A California Flora. In collaboration with D.D. Keck. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 1681 pp.

Munz, P.A. 1968. Supplement to a California Flora. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 224 pp.

Munz, P.A. 1974. A Flora of Southern California. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 1086 pp.

Rare Floras 

Argus, G.W. and K.W. Argus. 1990. Rare Vascular Plants in Canada: Our Natural Heritage. Canadian Museum of Nature. Ottawa, Canada. 191 pp.

Ayensu, E.S. and R.A. DeFilipps. 1978. Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States. Smithsonian Institution and the World Wildlife Fund. Washington, D.C. 403 pp.

California Department of Fish and Game. 1997. The Status of Rare, Threatened and Endangered Animals and Plants of California - Annual Report for 1996. The Resources Agency, State of California. Sacramento, CA. 191 pp.

California Department of Fish and Game, Natural Diversity Database. July 2000. Special Plants List. Biannual publication. Mimeo. 136 pp.

Colorado Native Plant Society. 1989. Rare Plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Nature Association. Rocky Mountain National Park. Estes Park, CO. 75 pp.

Eastman, D.C. 1990. Rare and Endangered Plants of Oregon. Beautiful America. Wilsonville, OR. 194 pp.

Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1977. The Biota of North America - Part I. Vascular Plants. Volume 1: Rare Plants. Biota of North America Committee. Pittsburgh, PA. 361 pp.

Meinke, R.J. 1981. Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Oregon: An Illustrated Guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Office of Endangered Species. Portland, OR. 353 pp.

Mozingo, H.N. and M. Williams. 1980. Threatened and Endangered Plants of Nevada: An Illustrated Manual. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and U.S. Bureau of Land Management Office. 268 pp.

Murray, D.F., and R. Lipkin. 1987. Candidate Threatened and Endangered Plants of Alaska With Comments on Other Rare Plants. University of Alaska Museum. Fairbanks, AK. 76 pp.

Nevada Natural Heritage Program. 2000. Detailed Rare Plant List. March 2, 2000 edition. Carson City, NV. Nevada Natural Heritage Program public web site at www.state.nv.us/nvnhp/plantsml.htm

New Mexico Native Plant Protection Advisory Committee. 1984. A Handbook of Rare and Endemic Plants of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque, NM. 291 pp.

O'Kane, S.L., Jr. 1988. Colorado's rare flora. Great Basin Naturalist 48: 434-484.

Oregon Natural Heritage Program. 1998. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species of Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program. Portland, OR. 92 pp.

Powell, W.R., ed. 1974. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (first edition). California Native Plant Society. Berkeley, CA. iii + 56 pp.

Sheehan, M. and R. Schuller. 1981. An Illustrated Guide to Endangered, Threatened and Sensitive Vascular Plants in Washington. Washington Natural Heritage Program. Olympia, WA. 328 pp.

Sivinski, R. and K. Lightfoot, eds. 1992. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of New Mexico. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division, Minerals and Natural Resources Department. Santa Fe, NM. 58 pp.

Skinner, M.W. and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (fifth edition). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. vi + 338 pp.

Smith, J.P., Jr. and J.O. Sawyer, Jr. 1988. Endemic vascular plants of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Madroño 35(1): 54-69.

Smith, J.P., Jr., ed. 1981. First Supplement, Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (second edition). California Native Plant Society. Berkeley, CA. 28 pp.

Smith, J.P., Jr. and K. Berg, eds. 1988. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (fourth edition). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. xviii + 168 pp.

Smith, J.P., Jr. and R. York, eds. 1982. Second Supplement, Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (second edition). California Native Plant Society. Berkeley, CA. 28 pp.

Smith, J.P., Jr. and R. York, eds. 1984. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (third edition). California Native Plant Society. Berkeley, CA. xviii + 174 pp.

Smith, J.P., Jr., R.J. Cole, and J.O. Sawyer, Jr., eds. 1980. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. Special Publication No. 1 (second edition). California Native Plant Society. Berkeley, CA. vii + 115 pp.

Steele, R., and F. Johnson. 1981. Vascular Plant Species of Concern in Idaho. Bull. No. 34. University of Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. Moscow, ID. 161 pp.

Walter, K.S. and H.J. Gillett, eds. 1997. The IUCN Plant Red List of Threatened Plants. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Morges, Switzerland.

Welsh, S.L., and L.M. Chatterley. 1985. Utah's rare plants revisited. Great Basin Naturalist 45: 173- 236.

Vovides, A.P. 1981. Lista preliminar de plantas mexicanas raras o en peligro de extinction. Biotica 6: 219-228.

Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1997. Endangered, Threatened and Sensitive Vascular Plants of Washington - with Working Lists of Rare Non-Vascular Species. Department of Natural Resources. Olympia, WA. 62 pp.

Welsh, S.L. and K.H. Thorne. 1979. Illustrated Manual of Proposed Endangered and Threatened Plants of Utah. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest Service. 318 pp.

Rarity and Rare Plant Biology 

Bevill, R.L. and S.M. Louda. 1999.Comparisons of related rare and common species in the study of plant rarity. Conservation Biology 13(3): 493-498.

Cochrane, S. 1985. Why rare species? Outdoor California 46(5): 20-23.

Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. John Murray, London.

Drury, W.H. 1974. Rare species. Biological Conservation 6(3): 162-169.

Drury, W.H. 1980. Rare species of plants. Rhodora 82: 3-48.

Ellstrand, N.C. and D.R. Elam. 1993. Population genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24:217-241.

Fiedler, P.L. 1986. Concepts of rarity in vascular plant species, with special reference to the genus Calochortus Pursh (Liliaceae). Taxon 35: 502-518.

Fiedler, P.L. 1987. Life history and population dynamics of rare and common mariposa lilies. Journal of Ecology 75:9 77-995.

Fiedler, P.L., and J.J. Ahouse. 1992. Hierarchies of cause: Toward an understanding of rarity in vascular plant species. Pages 23-47 in: P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain, eds. Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management. Chapman and Hall. New York, NY.

Fiedler, P.L., B.E. Knapp, and N. Fredricks. 1998. Rare plant demography: Lessons from the mariposa lilies. Pages 28-48 in: P.L. Fiedler and P.M. Kareiva, eds. Conservation Biology: For the Coming Decade. Second edition. Chapman and Hall/ITP, New York, N.Y.

Gaston, K.J. 1994. Rarity. Population and Community Biology Series 13. Chapman & Hall, New York. 205 pp.

Gaston, K.J., ed. 1996. Biodiversity. A Biology of Numbers and Difference. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, UK. 396 pp.

Griggs, R.F. 1940. The ecology of rare plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 67: 75-594.

Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1996. Conservation genetics of endemic plant species. Pp. 281-304, in: J.C. Avise and J.L. Hamrick, eds. Conservation Genetics. Case Histories From Nature. Chapman and Hall. New York, NY.

Harper, J. 1981. The meanings of rarity. Pp. 189-203, in: H. Synge, ed. The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY.

Harper, K.T. 1979. Some reproductive and life history characteristics of rare plants and implications for management. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 3:129-137.

Heard, S.B., M.A. Campbell, M.L. Bonine, and S.D. Hendrix. 1999. Developmental instability in fragmented populations of prairie phlox: a cautionary tale. Conservation Biology 13(2): 274-281.

Huxley, A. 1985. Green Inheritance: The World Wildlife Fund Book of Plants. Anchor/Doubleday. Garden City, NY. 193 pp.

Karron, J.D. 1987. A comparison of levels of genetic polymorphism and self-compatibility in geographically restricted and widespread plant congeners. Evolutionary Ecology 1: 47-58.

Karron, J.D. 1987. The pollination ecology of co-occurring geographically restricted and widespread species of Astragalus (Fabaceae). Biological Conservation 39: 179-193.

Karron, J.D. 1989. Breeding systems and levels of inbreeding depression in geographically restricted and widespread species of Astragalus (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 76: 331-340.

Karron, J.D. 1991. Patterns of genetic variation and breeding systems in rare plant species. Pp. 87-98 in D.A. Falk and K.E. Holsinger, eds. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press. New York, NY.

Kaye, T. 1989. Endemism and rarity in plants. Bulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon 22(3): 23-24.

Kruckeberg, A.R., and D. Rabinowitz. 1986. Biological aspects of endemism in higher plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 447-479.

Kunin, W.E. and K.J. Gaston. 1993. The biology of rarity: patterns, causes and consequences. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 74: 2145-2160.

Kunin, W.E. and K.J. Gaston, eds. 1997. The Biology of Rarity. Causes and Consequences of Rare-Common Differences. Chapman & Hall, London. 280 pp.

Lewis, H. 1972. The origin of endemics in the California flora. Pages 179-188 in: D.H. Valentine, ed. Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. Academic Press. New York, NY.

Meagher, T.R., J. Antonovics, and R. Primack. 1978. Experimental ecological genetics in Plantago, III. Genetic variation and demography in relation to survival of Plantago cordata, a rare species. Biological Conservation 14: 243-257.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1987. Why should we save our plants? The Nature Conservancy Magazine 37(5): 4-9.

Moran, G.F. and S.D. Hopper. 1987. Conservation of the genetic resources of rare and widespread eucalypts in remnant vegetation. Pp. 151-162 in D.A. Saunders, G.W. Arnold, A.A. Burbidge, and A.J.M. Hopkins, eds. Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.

Morse, L.E., and M.S. Henifin, eds. 1981 Rare Plant Conservation: Geographical Data Organization. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY.

Myers, N. 1983. A Wealth of Wild Species: Storehouse for Human Welfare. Westview Press. Boulder, Co. 274 pp.

Pate, J.S. and S.D. Hopper. 1993. Rare and common plants in ecosystems, with special reference to south-west Australian flora. Pp. 293-325 in E-D. Schulze and H.A. Mooney, eds. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Peat, H.J. and A.H. Fitter. 1994. Comparative analyses of ecological characteristics of British angiosperms. Biological Reviews 69: 95-115.

Prance, G.T., and T.S. Elias, eds. 1977. Extinction is Forever: Threatened and Endangered Species of Plants in the Americas and their Significance in Ecosystems Today and in the Future. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY. 437 pp.

Primack, R.B. 1980. Phenotypic variation of rare and widespread species of Plantago. Rhodora 82: 87-96.

Rabinowitz, D. 1978. Abundance and diaspore weight in rare and common prairie grasses. Oecologia 37: 213-219.

Rabinowitz, D. and J. Rapp. 1981. Dispersal abilities of seven sparse and common grasses from a Missouri prairie. American Journal of Botany 68: 616-624.

Rabinowitz, D., J.K. Rapp, and P.M. Dixon. 1984. Competitive abilities of sparse grass species: means of persistence or cause of abundance. Ecology 65: 1144-1154.

Reveal, J.L. 1981. The concepts of rarity and population threats in plant communities. Pages 41-47 in: L.E. Morse and M.S. Henifin, eds. Rare Plant Conservation: Geographical Data Organization. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY.

Reveal, J.L. and C.R. Broome. 1979. Plant rarity - real and imagined. The Nature Conservancy News 29(2): 4-8.

Rieseberg, L.H. and S.M. Swensen. 1996. Conservation genetics of endangered island plants. Pp. 305-334, in: J.C. Avise and J.L. Hamrick, eds. Conservation Genetics. Case Histories From Nature. Chapman and Hall. New York, NY.

Schoener, T.W. 1987. The geographic distribution of rarity. Oecologia 74: 161-173.

Schoener, T.W. 1990. The geographical distribution of rarity: misinterpretation of atlas methods affects some empirical conclusions. Oecologia 82: 567-568.

Smith, J.P., Jr. and J.O. Sawyer, Jr. 1988. Endemic vascular plants of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Madroño 35(1): 54-69.

Smith, T.B. and R.K. Wayne, eds. 1996. Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 483 pp.

Stebbins, G.L. 1978a. Why are there so many rare plants in California? I. Environmental factors. Fremontia 5(4): 6-10.

Stebbins, G.L. 1978b. Why are there so many rare plants in California? II. Youth and age of species. Fremontia 6(1): 17-20.

Stebbins, G.L. 1980. Rarity of plant species: a synthetic viewpoint. Rhodora 82:77-86.

Stebbins, G.L. 1986. Rare plants in California's national forests: their scientific value and conservation. Fremontia 13(4): 9-12.

Stebbins, G.L., and J. Major. 1965. Endemism and speciation in the California flora. Ecological Monographs 35: 1-35.

Willis, J.C. 1922. Age and Area: A Study in Geographic Distribution and Origin of Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Threats and Values 

Davis, S., S. Droop, P. Gregerson, L. Henson, C. Leon, J. Lamelin Villa-Lobos, H. Synge, and J. Zantovska. 1986. Plants in Danger: What Do We Know? International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Gland, Switzerland. 461 pp.

Duke, J.A. 1976. Economic appraisal of endangered plant species. Phytologia 34(1): 21-27.

Durant, M., and M. Saito. 1985. The hazardous life of our rarest plants. Audubon 87(4): 50-61.

Gunn, A.S. 1980. Why should we care about rare species? Environmental Ethics 2(1): 17-37.

Koopowitz, H., and H. Kaye. 1983. Plant Extinction: A Global Crisis. Stone Wall Press. Washington, D.C. 239 pp.

Jones and Stokes Associates. 1987. Sliding Toward Extinction: The State of California's Natural Heritage. The California Nature Conservancy. San Francisco, CA. 105 pp.

Legal Aspects 

Dennis, N.B. 1994. Does CEQA protect rare plants? Fremontia 22(1):3-13.

Council on Environmental Quality. 1981. A summary of the legal authorities for conserving wild plants. Council on Environmental Quality. Washington, D.C. 156 pp.

Cummings, E.W. 1987. Using the California Endangered Species Act consultation provisions for plant conservation. Pages 43-50 in: T.S. Elias, ed. Conservation and Management of Rare and Endangered Plants. Proceedings of a conference of the California Native Plant Society. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA.

McMahan, L. 1980. Legal protection for rare plants. American University Law Review 29(3): 515-569.

McMahan, L. 1981. Plants protected by the convention on international trade in endangered species of fauna and flora. International Convention Advisory Committee. Washington, D.C. 207 pp.

McMahan, L. 1987. Plant conservation laws: how effective are they? The Nature Conservancy Magazine 37(5): 21-23.

McMahan, L. 1987. Rare plant conservation by state governments. Pages 23-31 in: T.S. Elias, ed. Conservation and Management of Rare and Endangered Plants. Proceedings of a conference of the California Native Plant Society. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA.

Mueller, T.L. 1994. Guide to the Federal and California Endangered Species Laws. Planning and Conservation League. Sacramento, CA. 111pp. + appendices.

Mueller, T.L. 1995. Supplement, Guide to the Federal and California Endangered Species Laws. Planning and Conservation League. Sacramento, CA. 45 pp. + appendices.

Mueller, T.L. 1996. Supplement, Guide to the Federal and California Endangered Species Laws. Planning and Conservation League. Sacramento, CA. 54 pp. + appendices.

Peterson, T. 1994. Commenting on a CEQA document. Fremontia 22(1):14-19.

Reid, Thomas S. and Taylor Peterson. 1994. Laws for rare plant conservation. Fremontia 22(1):20-26.

Smith, E.L.V. 1980. Laws and information needs for listing plants. Rhodora 82: 193-199.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1981. Placing Animals and Plants on the List of Endangered and Threatened Species. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 8 pp.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Endangered & Threatened Wildlife and Plants. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 32 pp.

Yeates, J. W. 1997. Citizens Guide to the California Environmental Quality Act. Planning and Conservation League Foundation. Sacramento, CA. 36pp.

Conservation Biology and Management 

Bratton, S.P., and P.S. White. 1980. Rare plant management - after preservation what? Rhodora 82: 49-75.

Elias, T.S., ed. 1987. Conservation and Management of Rare and Endangered Plants. Proceedings from a conference of the California Native Plant Society. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. 630 pp.

Falk, D.A. 1987. Integrated conservation strategies for endangered plants. Natural Areas Journal 7(3): 118-123.

Falk, D.A. 1990. Integrated strategies for conserving plant genetic diversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 77: 38-47.

Falk, D.A. 1992. From conservation biology to conservation practice: Strategies for protecting plant diversity. Pages 397-431 in P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain, eds. Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management. Chapman & Hall. New York, NY.

Falk, D.A. and K.E. Holsinger, eds. 1991. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 304 pp.

Falk, D.A., C. Millar, and M. Olwell, eds. 1996. Restoring Diversity. Diversity. Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. Island Press. Covelo, CA. 505 pp.

Fiedler, P. and S. Jain, eds. 1992. Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management. Chapman & Hall. New York. 507 pp.

Fiedler, P.L. and P.M. Kareiva, eds. 1997. Conservation Biology: For the Coming Decade. Second edition. Chapman & Hall/ITP. New York, N.Y. 533 pp.

Frankel, O.H., A.H.D. Brown, and J.J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 299 pp.

Given, D.R. 1994. Principles and Practice of Plant Conservation. Timber Press. Portland, OR. 292 pp.

Guerrant, E.O. and B.M. Pavlik. 1998. Reintroduction of rare plants: genetics, demography, and the role of ex situ conservation methods. Pp. 80-108 in: P.L. Fiedler, and P.M. Kareiva, eds. Conservation Biology: For the Coming Decade. Second edition. Chapman & Hall/ITP. New York, N.Y.

Hobbs, R.J. and H.A. Mooney. 1998. Broading the extinction debate: population deletions and additions in California and Western Australia. Conservation Biology 12(2): 271-283.

Hopper, S.D. 1998. An Australian perspective on plant conservation biology in practice. Pp. 255-278 in: P.L. Fiedler, and P.M. Kareiva, eds. Conservation Biology: For the Coming Decade. Second edition. Chapman & Hall/ITP. New York, N.Y.

Jensen, D.B., M. Torn, and J. Harte. 1990. In Our Own Hands: A Strategy for Conserving Biological Diversity in California. California Policy Seminar, University of California. Berkeley, CA. 184 pp.

Kesseli, R.V. 1992. Population biology and conservation of rare plants. Pages 69-90 in: S.K. Jain and L.W. Botsford, eds. Applied Population Biology. Kluver Academic Publishers. Netherlands.

Maunder, M. 1992. Plant reintroduction: An overview. Biological Conservation 1: 21-62.

McArdle, B.H. 1990. When are rare species not there? Oikos 57: 276-277.

McIntyre, S. 1992. Risks associated with the setting of conservation priorities from rare plant species lists. Biological Conservation 60: 31-37.

Menges, E.S. 1990. Population viability analysis for an endangered plant. Conservation Biology 4: 52-62.

Menges, E.S. 1991. The application of minimum viable population theory to plants. Pp. 45-61, in: D.A. Falk and K.E. Holsinger, eds. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press. New York, NY.

Menges, E.S. 1998. Evaluating extinction risks in plant populations. Pp. 49-65 in: P.L. Fiedler, and P.M. Kareiva, eds. Conservation Biology: For the Coming Decade. Second edition. Chapman & Hall/ITP. New York, N.Y.

Menges, E.S. and D.R. Gordon. 1996. Three levels of monitoring intensity for rare plant species. Natural Areas Journal 16: 227-237.

Miasek, M.A., and C.R. Long. 1985. Endangered Plant Species of the World and Their Endangered Habitats: A Compilation of the Literature. Revised and enlarged edition. Plant Bibliography No. 6. The Library of the New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY. 46 pp.

Mlot, C. 1989. Blueprint for conserving plant diversity. BioScience 39(6): 364-368.

Palmer, M.E. 1987. A critical look at rare plant monitoring in the United States. Biological Conservation 39: 113-127.

Pavlik, B.M. 1994. Demographic monitoring and the recovery of endangered plants. Pp. 322-350: M.C. Bowles and C. Whelan, eds. Recovery and Restoration of Endangered Species. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Pavlik, B.M. 1995. The recovery of an endangered plant II. A three-phased approach to restoring populations. Pp. 49-69, in: K.M. Urbanska and K. Grodzinska, eds. Restoration Ecology in Europe. Geobotanical Institute SFIT. Zurich, Switzerland.

Pavlik, B.M. 1996. Defining and measuring success in rare plant reintroductions. Pp. 127-155, in: D.A. Falk, C. Millar, and M. Olwell, eds. 1996. Restoring Diversity. Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. Island Press. Covelo, CA.

Pavlik, B.M. and M.G. Barbour. 1988. Demographic monitoring of endemic sand dune plants, Eureka Valley, California. Biological Conservation 46: 217-242.

Pavlik, B.M., D.L. Nickrent, and A.M. Howald. 1993. The recovery of an endangered plant. I. Creating a new population of Amsinckia grandiflora. Conservation Biology 7: 510-526.

Pickett, S.T.A., R.S. Ostfeld, M. Shachak, and G.E. Likens, eds. The Ecological Basis of Conservation. Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity. Chapman and Hall/ITP. New York, NY. 466 pp.

Primack, R.B. 1993. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, MA. 559 pp.

Primack, R.B. 1995. A Primer of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, MA. 559 pp. 277 pp.

Schemske, D.W., B. Husband, M.H. Ruckleshaus, C. Goodwillie, I.M. Parker, and J.G. Bishop. 1994. Evaluating approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants. Ecology 75: 584-606.

Schonewald-Cox, C.M., S.M. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and L. Thomas. 1983. Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. Menlo Park, CA. 722 pp.

Simmons, J.B., R.I. Beyer, P.E. Brandham, G.L. Lucas, and V.T.H. Parry. 1976. Conservation of Threatened Plants. Plenum Press. New York, NY. 336 pp.

Soule, M.E., ed. 1986. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, MA. 584 pp.

Sutter, R. 1996. Monitoring. Pp. 235-264, in: : D.A. Falk, C. Millar, and M. Olwell, eds. Restoring Diversity. Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants.

Synge, H., ed. 1981. The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. 558 pp. Island Press. Covelo, CA.

Western, D. and M. Pearl, eds. 1989. Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 365 pp.

White, P.S. 1996. Spatial and biological scales in reintroduction. Pp. 49-86, in: D.A. Falk, C. Millar, and M. Olwell, eds. Restoring Diversity. Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. Island Press. Covelo, CA.

Wilson, E.O., ed. 1988. Biodiversity. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 521 pp.

Plant Communities 

Barbour, M., and J. Major, eds. 1988. Terrestrial Vegetation of California. 2nd edition. Special Publication No. 9. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. 1002 pp. + Supplement.

Barbour, M., B. Pavlik, F. Drysdale, and S. Lindstrom. 1993. California's Changing Landscapes: Diversity and Conservation of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. 244 pp.

California Native Plant Society. 1997. California's Wild Gardens. A Living Legacy. California Department of Fish and Game. Sacramento, CA. 236 pp.

Cheatham, N.H., and J.R. Haller. 1975. An Annotated List of California Habitat Types. University of California Natural Land and Water Reserves System. Berkeley, CA. 77 pp.

Dallman, P.R. 1998. Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. 257 pp.

Holland, R.F. 1986. Preliminary Descriptions of the Terrestrial Natural Communities of California. Nongame-Heritage Program. California Department of Fish and Game. Sacramento, CA. 156 pp.

Raven, P.H. and D.I. Axelrod. 1978. Origin and Relationships of the California Flora. University of California Publications in Botany Volume 72. Berkeley, California. 134 pp.

Sawyer, J.O. and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A Manual of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. 471 pp.

 

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